These maps are visuals that show an inventory of the potential capacity for select renewable energy resource across the
Metro Vancouver region. Much of the energy currently used for our homes comes from remote suppliers in BC and Alberta,
at least 400-100 kilometers away. These include natural gas to heat our home and electricity to power our homes. The
focus of these maps is to visualize what local energy solutions would look for Metro Vancouver with the options of various
renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, hydro (run-of-river), sewage heat recovery, and bioenergy. The selection
of maps does not reflect constrains of economic viability, social acceptability or current regulations. Existing data
from various sources are analyzed and mapped using new techniques suitable to communicating energy resources at a regional
Our suppliers for our homes comes from remote suppliers in BC and Alberta, at least 400-100 kilometers away. Natural gas
to heat our home is piped from Northeastern BC and Alberta. Electricity to power our homes comes primarily (approximately
90%) from Hydroelectric dams in southeastern and central BC. This hydroelectricity is supplemented by natural gas electricity
generation in BC and, at times, by other fossil fuel-based generating plants in Alberta and the United States. Metro
Vancouver is also crossed by railways and pipelines which ship coal and oil from the oilsands for export. A small portion
of the oil that is exported is then imported back to Canada to meet our transportation needs. These maps were developed
by Rory Tooke, PhD. Questions should be sent to
Deepti Matthew Iype, Research Scientist at CALP.
There are three components of sunlight: (1) Atmosphere, (2) Solar Position, and (3) Urban Form. Local governments can
use zoning bylaws to help dictate the building and urban design, including the roof geometry. For example, the direction
by which sloped roofs are orientated or the placement of trees on property are ways that can utilize solar potential.
LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) datasets are used for looking at solar energy potentials. Four steps were considered
based on the publications in the Solar Energy and Applied Energy Journals: (1) Determine the outline of building,
(2) Calculate the slope and orientation of each square meter of roof, (3) for each square meter of roof, locate surrounding
buildings and trees that could occlude the sun, and (4) model the trajectory of the sun at regular time intervals
to determine how much solar energy reaches the roofs over a period of time (accounting atmospheric effects).
Since LiDAR datasets are not available in all municipalities across the Metro Vancouver region, the calculation was
extrapolated across regions of known radiation from LiDAR to non-available LiDAR sites. For a more in-depth report
of our map methodology, please feel free to view it
Cloud cover and aerosols were included in assessment of solar energy but did not account any variation in cloud cover
across Metro Vancouver (i.e. cloud cover was assumed to be the same in all of the Metro Vancouver municipalities).
For cloud cover, many components are involved to understand the effects and availability of solar energy: (1) Trees and
building shadows on building roofs, (2) angle between roof and sun, and (3) total amount of roof space available to
mount solar panels). MODIS is a sensor that is mounted to two satellites (Terra and Aqua) and scans the entire Earth
every 1-2 days.
MODIS measures light reflected from Earth’s surface and the atmosphere at various wavelengths. Data from the Aqua
satellite was used since the time of the image acquisition more closely coincides with highest sun angles (meaning
strongest solar energy hitting local earth surface).
In this map, the data spanned over an 11-year period from July 2002 to 2013. By using the
MODIS Reprojection Tool Swatch, the image files were geographically referenced and gridded to an area around Metro
Vancouver. For a more in-depth report of our map methodology, please feel free to view it
Wind turbines provide some of the most iconic imagery when it to comes to renewable energy. The colour, shape and movement
of wind turbines provide visceral symbols of a low carbon future. Wind energy technologies are also often a low-cost
option for energy generation and are being rapidly developed across the world. In 2012, global wind energy capacity
grew by an estimated 50,000 MW and wind now supplies over 2.5% of global electricity demand.
Have you ever seen the large wind turbine on Grouse Mountain? Metro Vancouver calls it the “Eye of the Wind”. There
are four types of area sites represented: (1) Offshore, (2) Urban, (3) Rural, and (4) Mountain.
There are variation in wind speed across Metro Vancouver.
Environment Canada’s Canadian Wind Energy Atlas is the primary source of data, where wind assessments are calculated
at 80m above surface. They also statistically analyzed atmospheric observation and models provided by
US National Centers for Environmental Prediction and
National Center for Atmospheric Research at 6 hour intervals, between 1958-2000. This provided a general systematic
estimate of wind speed across large areas (i.e. all of Canada). To turn wind into electricity, institutions suggest
the best sites for wind energy projects is crucial in having consistent high winds. But there is a place for medium
and low wind sites that represent 90% of locations where financing is available. It all depends on design. For a
more in-depth report of our map methodology, please feel free to view it
Bioenergy describes the energy contained in biological material, such as wood, crops, manure and garbage. British Columbia
has large natural biomass resources that can be used to produce energy at the individual level (eg. high-efficiency
wood stoves), farm level (eg. biogas), or in district energy plants.
The two main types of bioenergy come from biofuel sources and biomass sources. Biofuel can be bioethanol (fermentation
of starch crops), biodiesel (vegetable oils and animal fats), and biogas (methane from anaerobic digestion of organic
waste or syngas from wood). Biomass sources can come from forestry waste, construction wood waste, fuel crops (dried
manure and stemwood), garbage, charcoal or biochar.
BC Vegetation Resource Inventory was used to prove information where vegetation resources are located and how
much resource exists within inventory unit. The site index* and tree species was used from VRI to establish background
conditions for estimates of biomass in Metro Vancouver. These information were entered into a FORECAST model, where
the model simulates initial soil conditions and ecosystem dynamics (calibrated to conditions relative to Metro Vancouver
region). Categorizing vegetation inventory units into classes can be done to represent the distribution of the site
indices for each species. One of the main outputs of the model is running simulation of accumulation of biomass over
time. The analysis identified 4.5 million metric tons of annual sustainable forest biomass but the question comes
down to “what portion of biomass can be realistically harvested?”. *Site index – indicator of potential for trees
to grow at a particular location (estimate site productivity) For a more in-depth report of our map methodology,
please feel free to view it
Agriculture contributes up to 30% of all GHG emissions, where methane is released into the atmostphere from livestock
manure. Methane is also a primary chemical component of biogas and natural gas. When it is combusted, the fuel can
be used to generate electricity and/or heat. Livestock head counts was used from the
2006 Agriculture Census. The conversion for manure and energy yield by livestock grouping were selected from
American and European studies. Assuming that manure is available for energy producing purposes, Metro Vancouver region
could produce a total of ~675TJ of livestock biogas energy per year (this is equivalent to the total thermal and
electricity energy used in approximately 3000 single family homes) . For a more in-depth report of our map methodology,
please feel free to view it
Industrial Heat Recovery
Industrial heat recovery is a promising way to take waste and turn it into a usable energy resource for our communities.
There are various available methods that can capture the resulting heat energy from industrial processes. Heat Recovery
is the practice of capturing the energy from waste byproduct of one process and using it as input for another.
There are two basic applications: (1) Recycling waste heat back into the processes at the same facility and; (2) Transferring
the waste heat for use by another process off-site, perhaps some distance away.
Communities across the region use different total amounts of energy for electricity, heating, and transportation. We
also consume different amount of energy per person across the region, depending on which municipality we live in
(due to their housing types, land uses, transport options, and energy/climate change policies).
In Metro Vancouver, approximately 30% of our energy use comes from residential buildings. The energy is split mainly
between natural gas and electricity*. To consider more of our energy demands, energy retrofits on upgrading the building
envelope (i.e. insulation, windows, etc.) and system efficiencies (i.e. furnace, hot water tank, etc.). The Province
of BC requires that at a minimum of 66% of new electricity demand are to be met by demand-side measures by 2020.
BC Hydro’s Integrated Resource Plan works on demand-side management to offset 43% of the new demand, and 50%
of the new capacity by 2023 (covering only electricity and natural gas.
*BC’s electricity generally comes from hydropower, a clean energy resource. However, hydroelectricity is supplemented
by natural gas electricity generation in BC and, at times, other fossil fuel-based generating plants in Alberta and
the United States. This ultimately makes our “clean energy” not so clean anymore.
The building’s energy use was measured by utilities, but there are privacy and liability concerns with restricted data
access. The energy audit information was taken from over 7000 houses from the Natural Resource Canada EcoEnergy Program.
The data was used in relation between the building’s energy use and its’ age. The trend shows that new homes perform
better than old ones as a general estimate (considering deviation and confidence). The BC Assessment data was used
to identify the year most homes are built and their size (floor area). This information was used in relation to the
between the building’s energy use and age to predict energy performances of these buildings for all homes in the
region. The assessment data also gave the number of units in townhouses, and apartment buildings to normalize data
so the energy use would be represented for individual dwelling units instead of multi-unit buildings as a whole.